Alexander the Great (Alexander III of Macedon, Alexander of Macedon, Александар Македонски) (Pella, 356 BC. - Babylon, 13 VI 323 BC.) was Macedonian emperor (336-323 BC) from the Argead dynasty, son of Philip II the Macedon and Olympias of Epirus.
Romans gave him the nickname of "Magnus" - "The great conquer of the world."
He was educated in the spirit of Macedonian aristocratic tradition, at 13-years he is tutored by the philosopher Aristotle.
His education encompassed poetry, astronomy, geometry, rhetoric, gymnastic exercises, horse riding and hunting.
At 16-years, his father Philip entrusts him the management of Macedonia (340) while he is on campaign against Byzantion. His first military expedition was against Thracian Maedi (tribe from the upper course of the river Strymon), where he won his first victory and here he founded the city of Alexandropolis.
18 years old, he participates in the famous “Battle of Chaeronea” (338) and, together with his father, Philip they outperformed the Allied Hellenes.
After the murder of Philip (336) Macedonian Assembly proclaimed him ruler of Macedonia. First military action was aimed at Hellenic policies that were trying to overthrow the Macedonian government and force them to comply with Corinthian agreement, under which he inherited the title of "Hegemon of Helens".
In the campaign in 335 BC, he defeats the Triballians and their allies Getae tribe, then the Illyrian tribes, and from Illyrian territory goes down to Hellada where again erupts anti Macedonian uprising (inspired by Demosthenes) with hotspot in Thebes. He defeats the Thebans, and Athens accepts the offered peace agreement.
In 334 BC Alexander the Great starts a campaign against Persia with 40,000 troops and 1,600 ships. In Asia Minor he enters through Hellespont and first military clash with the Persian army occurs on river Granicus “Battle of Granicus” (334). Victory paves the way for further breakthrough, he accepts the surrender of Persian provincial capital Sardis and proceeds along the Ionian coast. In the city of Ephesus, he was greeted as a liberator from Persian oppression, and only the cities single Millet and Halicarnassus have resisted (334).
Alexander III of Macedon in battle with the Persians (relief)
After these conquests he divides the army in two parts: one part, headed by Parmenion goes to winter at Sardis, and the other goes on an expedition through Curry, Lycia and Pamphylia winning all cities and fortresses. (Continue on next page…)